Key Pointers

  • Aging is an irreversible and inevitable process.
  • Aging can be classified as chronological and biological aging.
  • Environmental Factors influence the aging process.

Aging is a gradual, continuous process of natural changes that begin in early adulthood. Changes are physical, mental, chemical, and anatomical. Aging is an inevitable process. We can delay aging, but we cannot stop it. Aging correlates with the limit of gene expression capacity.

The existence of life is not possible without NAD+. The NAD+ has an important role in the process of aging. The NAD supplementation can boost the life expectancy of the cell and slows down the aging process. The NAD+ levels decrease during chronological aging, which results in pathological changes in the body and causes degenerative disorders.

We divide aging into two groups

  • Chronological aging - Chronological aging refers to simply how old a person is or the number of years a person has been alive.
  • Bio-logical aging - Biological aging refers to the decline in the function of tissue/organelles. In biological aging, the person seems to be old.

The chronological aging of a person simply reflects in their appearance, but they may improve their biological aging. And if a person is biologically aged, they will look fatigued and older than their actual chronological age.

The level of NAD+ decreases with advancing age, and NAD+ supplementation can improve the functions of the tissues or organelles. NAD+ is a well-known and most important anti-aging molecule. Many age-related changes can be reversed by replenishing the NAD+ level.

Physiological factors include:

  • How person feels
  • Physical health
  • Level of fatigue at the time of learning
  • The quality of food intake
  • Their age

The factors that influence Biological aging are:

  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Smoking
  • Toxins
  • Alcohol
  • Stress

If an individuals diet is sufficient and is taking proper vitamins, nutrients including micronutrients and protein, their bio-logical as well chronological aging is being delayed.

Exercise also improves muscle strength, maintains body posture, and mental health.

As the quote expressed:

A healthy body has a healthy mind”.

Smoking affects chronological aging and biological aging. Toxins present in tobacco cause serious damage to epithelial tissue, which causes disfiguring of tissue, organelle, and eventually, the process of aging is on.

The aging process is a continuous natural process that starts when a person is born and ends when a person dies.

Stress, though, does not have a direct effect, but it contributes to the aging process. Stress causes the production of numerous hormones and chemicals which contribute to the aging process.

Chronological aging is delayed by

  • Exercise
  • Balance diet
  • Supplements intake
  • Sufficient sleep
  • Personal hygiene
  • Monthly check-up
  • Chronological aging is a suboptimal sign of biological aging. As a person grows or becomes old, their biological aging starts.


 Bio-logical aging can result in

  • Vasculitis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Degenerative myelopathy
  • Blurred vision
  • Wrinkles
  • Loss of elasticity
  • Bone degeneration
  • Degradation of intellectual thinking

Bio-logical aging can be delayed by proper diet, medication, rest, and attention. One of the most important age-related problems is muscle degeneration. The NAD+ supplementation can reverse this muscle degeneration.


Bio-logical aging is measured by telomeres and DNA methylation. Telomeres are nucleotides present at the end of chromosomes, which keep the ends of chromosomes deteriorating and fusing with nearby chromosomes. It is shown in research that the higher the chronological age, the shorter will be his telomeres. DNA methylation is the methylation of DNA to keep Gene expression off.

So if we can keep off these telomeres and DNA methylation, we can delay the aging process. Telomeres are biomarkers for any gene expression. As telomeres get shorter, gene expression is lost. The DNA methylation process is not exactly known but keeps a better balance between gene expression and gene suppression. Even if we are chronological aged, bio-logical aging can be delayed by proper diet, medication, and balanced nutrition. The NAD+ and NAD+ dependent metabolites are responsible for many biological processes in the body.


Chronological aging means how many years a person has been alive.

Bio-logical aging means the decline in the function of cells, tissue, and organelles.

Chronological aging or bio-logical aging is an inevitable process. One is related to physiology and the other with pathophysiology.


  2. Hamczyk M.R., del Campo L., Andrés V. "Aging in the cardiovascular system: lessons from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome". Annu Rev Physiol 2018;80:27-48.
  3. Verdin, E. NAD+ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Science 350, 1208–1213 (2015).
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